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Evaluate the influence technology and the Internet has on your life and society in general.

Please see attached and complete no AI and please attached Tentium Report. Please read thoroughly and complete. three parts activity assignment, and finial response 

4/6/24, 11:54 AM Ch 14 Web Activity – Understanding Social Problems 1/2

Ch 14 Web Activity – Understanding Social Problems

Due Apr 24 by 11:59pm Points 40 Submitting a text entry box or a file upload

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Evaluate the influence technology and the Internet has on your life and society in general. Ask yourself:

How often do you use the Internet or other forms of technology? What forms of technology do you feel are most beneficial to society? What forms of technology do you feel are the most detrimental/negative to society? Do you feel society is dependent the Internet and forms of technology? How/ Why or Why not? Where do you see technology in 10 years?

Canvas Web Activities must be completed by the posted deadline listed on the syllabus.

To obtain any points, the student must complete/submit the activity on Canvas by the posted deadline in the syllabus. It will not be accepted late under any circumstances. You will not be able to access the activities after the posted deadline. At a minimum…. Responses to activities should be at least THREE fully detailed paragraphs. Each paragraph should have at least 6- 8 sentences. They should be well thought out, organized, clearly presented and checked for basic spelling and grammar. I am looking to see that you fully understand and can apply the course concepts. REMEMBER…. MINIMAL EFFORT EQUALS MINIMAL GRADE (20-30 POINTS). IF YOU WISH TO EARN THE MAXIMUM POINTS, YOU MUST SHOW MAXIMUM EFFORT AND MASTERY OF THE COVERED CONCEPTS AND MATERIALS. (Basic grading rubric: Below Expectations: 0-10 points, Needs Improvement: 11-20 points, Meets Expectations: 21- 30 points, Exceeds Expectations: 31-40 points.) A more detailed rubric will be posted on Canvas. Points will be deducted for not meeting the basic requirements. Please do not procrastinate.

4/6/24, 11:54 AM Ch 14 Web Activity – Understanding Social Problems 2/2


4/6/24, 11:56 AM Quiz: Ch 14 Review Quiz – Mooney Social Problems 1/9

Ch 14 Review Quiz – Mooney Social Problems Started: Feb 26 at 11:36am

Quiz Instructions  Question 1 1 pts

 Question 2 1 pts

What term applies to the tendency for technology to have both positive and negative consequences?

Technological dualism


Technology in the balance

Cultural lag

Technology differs from science in that technology focuses on

applying the principles of science and mechanics to the solutions of a specific problem.

how to predict natural or social outcomes.

finding relationships between phenomena.

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Quiz: Ch 14 Review Quiz – Mooney Social Problems 2/9

 Question 3 1 pts

 Question 4 1 pts

 Question 5 1 pts

discovering patterns in natural and human behavior.

__________ refers to the use of tools to accomplish tasks that people used to do by hand.





Which term reflects the percentage of people who have access to and use the Internet in a particular area?

Cyber rate

Penetration rate

Technological saturation

Internet infiltration

The most popular use of the Internet in developing nations is

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Quiz: Ch 14 Review Quiz – Mooney Social Problems 3/9

 Question 6 1 pts

 Question 7 1 pts

social interaction.

business contacts.

educational uses.

official government business.

The use of scientific principles and technology to solve social problems is a

technological fix.

postmodern response.


cyber solution.

The development of time-saving machines increases production, but it also displaces workers and contributes to high rates of employee alienation. Employee

displacement illustrates a


4/6/24, 11:56 AM Quiz: Ch 14 Review Quiz – Mooney Social Problems 4/9

 Question 8 1 pts

 Question 9 1 pts

functional alternative.

technological fix.

socially constructed truth.

The technology of biometrics in the workplace involves

use of identifying characteristics such as hands, fingers, and eyes.

the sale of genetically altered foods in employee cafeterias.

providing exercise gyms and low fat snacks for employees.

limiting unnecessary human movements to achieve efficient production.

Twenty-first Century technology in the workplace

makes supervisors more important.

changes the location of work.

enhances worker’s creativity.

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Quiz: Ch 14 Review Quiz – Mooney Social Problems 5/9

 Question 10 1 pts

 Question 11 1 pts

 Question 12 1 pts

makes workers less accountable.

Increases in telecommuting have

decreased working hours.

benefited low income workers more than high income workers.

blurred the distinction between work and home.

decreased productivity.

Ninety percent of robots work in

food service industries.


household cleaning services.

home and building construction.

How has technology changed worker accountability?

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Quiz: Ch 14 Review Quiz – Mooney Social Problems 6/9

 Question 13 1 pts

 Question 14 1 pts

It is used to gather information about performance.

It allows for greater personal responsibility.

It tends to increase worker satisfaction.

It prevents workers from making errors.

The most common computer activity around the world is

word processing.

using social media.

working with spreadsheets or databases.

accessing or updating calendars or schedules.

______ is an international informational network.

Information technology

A computer

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Quiz: Ch 14 Review Quiz – Mooney Social Problems 7/9

 Question 15 1 pts

 Question 16 1 pts

A robot

The Internet

GMO's are

genetically modified organisms.

global manufacturing organizations.

germ management organizations.

gene management organizations.

In general, the digital divide is

growing across the world.

shrinking everywhere.

growing in the U.S. but shrinking in the rest of the world.

remaining stable.

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Quiz: Ch 14 Review Quiz – Mooney Social Problems 8/9

 Question 17 1 pts

 Question 18 1 pts

 Question 19 1 pts

 Question 20 1 pts

If Jill harasses a classmate on Facebook and spreads rumors about her on Twitter, this is known as





Music is an example of a STEM discipline.



Over three quarters of U.S. households report having a computer in the home.



4/6/24, 11:56 AM Quiz: Ch 14 Review Quiz – Mooney Social Problems 9/9

Not saved

Increased rates of telecommuting also increased the hours people work.



Submit Quiz


4/6/24, 11:56 AM Chapter 14 Outline – Mooney-2: (Spring 2024) SOC 268 (1XYW) – Social Problems 1/14

Chapter 14 Outline – Mooney-2 LECTURE OUTLINE

I. THE GLOBAL CONTEXT: THE TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION A. Science and Technology 1. Science: the process of discovering, explaining, and predicting natural or social phenomena. 2. Technology: a form of human cultural activity that applies the principles of science and mechanics to the solution of problems in order to accomplish a specific task. 3. Societies differ in their levels of technological sophistication and development. a. In agricultural societies, which emphasize the production of raw materials, the use of tools to accomplish tasks previously done by hand, or mechanization, dominates. b. As societies move toward industrialization and the mass production of goods, automation, the use of self-operating machines, prevails. c. As society moves toward post-industrialization, it emphasizes service and information professions; technology shifts toward cybernation, whereby machines control machines. B. The Global Context: The Technological Revolution 1. The world is a much smaller place than it used to be, and it will become even smaller as the technological revolution continues. a. In 2012, the Internet had 2.4 billion users in more than 200 countries with 245 million users in the U.S. b. Although three-fourths of Internet users live in industrialized countries, Africans, Middle Easterners, and Latin Americans are increasingly “getting online.” 2. The movement toward the globalization of technology is not limited to the use and expansion of the Internet. a. The world robot market—and the U.S. share of it—continues to expand. b. Microsoft’s Internet platform and support products are sold all over the world. c. Scientists collect skin and blood samples from remote islanders for genetic research. d. A global treaty regulating trade of genetically altered products has been signed by more

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Chapter 14 Outline – Mooney-2: (Spring 2024) SOC 268 (1XYW) – Social Problems 2/14

than 100 nations. e. Intel computer processing units (CPUs) power an estimated 80% of the world’s personal computers (PCs). 3. To achieve scientific and technological innovations (research and development, R & D), countries need material and economic resources. a. Research entails the pursuit of knowledge; development refers to the production of materials, systems, processes, or devices directed toward the solution of a practical problem. 4. The U.S. leads the world in science and technology although there is evidence that we are falling behind, which is likely the result of several interacting forces. a. The federal government is investing less in R & D due to fiscal deficits. b. Corporations, the largest contributor to R & D, are focusing on short-term products and higher profits as pressure from stock holders mounts. c. Developing countries (esp. China and India) are expanding their scientific and technological capabilities at a faster rate than the U.S. d. There has been a drop in science and math education in U.S. schools both in terms of quality and quantity. 5. Scholars document “unscientific America”—the tremendous disconnect between citizens, media, politicians, religious leaders, education and entertainment on the one hand and science and scientists on the other. C. Postmodernism and the Technological Fix 1. Many Americans believe that social problems can be resolved through a technological fix rather than through social engineering. a. A social engineer might approach the problem of water shortages by persuading people to change their lifestyle: use less water, take shorter showers, and wear clothes more than once before washing. b. A technologists would concentrate of the development of new technologies that would increase the water supply. 2. Social problems can be tackled through both social engineering and a technological fix. a. Social engineering efforts to reduce drunk driving have included imposing stiffer

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Chapter 14 Outline – Mooney-2: (Spring 2024) SOC 268 (1XYW) – Social Problems 3/14

penalties for drunk driving and disseminating public service announcements. A technological fix for drunk driving is the development of car air bags to reduce injuries caused by accidents. 3. Postmodernism: an emerging worldwide view which holds that rational thinking and the scientific perspective have fallen short in providing the “truths” they were once presumed to hold. a. During the industrial era, science, rationality, and technological innovations were thought to hold the promises of a better, safer, and more humane world. b. Today postmodernists point to the unforeseen and unwanted consequences of these technologies.

II. SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY A. Structural-Functionalist Perspective 1. Structural functionalists view science and technology as emerging in response to societal needs—that science was born indicates that society needed it. 2. If society changes too rapidly as a result of science and technology, problems may emerge. a. When the material part of culture changes (i.e., its physical elements) changes at a faster rate than the nonmaterial part (i.e., its beliefs and values), a cultural lag may develop. 3. Robert Merton, a structural-functionalist and founder of the subdiscipline sociology of science, argued that scientific discoveries or technological innovations may be dysfunctional for society and create instability in the social system. B. Conflict Perspective 1. Science and technology benefit a select few. 2. For some conflict theorists, technological advances occur as a response to capitalist needs for increased efficiency and productivity and, thus, are motivated by profit. 3. In the U.S., private industry spends more money on research and development than the federal government; consequently, products are put on the market without thorough safety testing. 4. Science and technology further the interests of dominant groups to the detriment of others. a. The need for scientific research on AIDS was evident in the early 1980s, however sufficient money for AIDS research was not provided until it was discovered that

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Chapter 14 Outline – Mooney-2: (Spring 2024) SOC 268 (1XYW) – Social Problems 4/14

heterosexuals and non IV-drug users were at risk. 5. When the dominant group feels threatened, it may use technology as a means of social control. 6. Conflict theorists as well as feminists argue that technology is an extension of the patriarchal nature of society that promotes the interests of men and ignores the needs and interests of women. C. Symbolic-Interactionist Perspective 1. Knowledge is relative: it changes over time, circumstances, and between societies. 2. Scientific “truths” are socially constructed and result from interactions between scientists, researchers, and the lay public. 3. The success of technological innovations depends on the social meaning assigned to any particular product (e.g. contraceptive RU486 is popular in France but not in the U.S., where it is opposed by many Americans). 4. Who becomes involved in what aspects of science and technology is socially defined (e.g., men vs. women).

III. TECHNOLOGY AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIETY A. Older technologies have influenced the social world as profoundly as the most mind-boggling modern inventions. 1. The clock was originally developed by Benedictine monasteries of the 12th and 13th centuries who needed a device to provide precise regularity to the routines of the monasteries: the clock could provide precision to rituals of devotion. 2. Paradoxically, the clock was invented by men who wanted to devote themselves to God; it became a technology used by men who devoted themselves to the accumulation of money. B. Technology and the Workplace 1. Some technology lessens the need for supervisors and makes control by employers easier. a. The use of identifying characteristics such as hands, fingers, and eyes is part of a technology called biometrics. b. Technology can make workers more accountable by gathering information about their performance. 2. Technology increases efficiency—e.g., by personal digital assistants (PDAs) and batterypowered

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Chapter 14 Outline – Mooney-2: (Spring 2024) SOC 268 (1XYW) – Social Problems 5/14

store-shelf labels. 3. Technology can contribute to worker error (e.g., hospital computer drug-ordering programs may not provide enough information about patient’s allergies and usual doses of drugs). 4. Technology is changing the location of work (e.g., increase telecommuting). a. Telepresencing is a sophisticated technology that allows life-sized participants in the virtual presence of one another to realistically communicate through broadcast quality sound and images. 5. Information technologies are also changing the nature of work. 6. Robotic technology has also revolutionized work. C. The Computer Revolution 1. Although the first PC was developed only 30 years ago, today more than 75% of adult Americans reported having a home computer. 2. Americans are more likely to use a computer at home than at work. 3. Use at either location is associated with demographic variables: higher education and income increase the likelihood of using a computer at home; use at home is lowest for 65 and older and at work is highest for 35-44 year olds. 4. The U.S. has 76.6% of households with a computer. Israel has the highest rate (122/100 people) and Honduras has one of the lowest (2.5/100). 5. Computer education has mushroomed in the last two decades. 6. Computers are big business and the U.S. is one of the most successful producers of computer technology in the world, boasting several of the top companies—Dell, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and Apple. 7. In some states, the computer software business is too big. a. In 2000, a federal judge found that Microsoft Corporation was in violation of antitrust laws which prohibit unreasonable restraint of trade. D. Information and Communication Technology and the Internet 1. Information and communication technology (ICT): any technology that carries information. a. Most information technologies were developed within a 100-year span: photography and telegraphy (1830s), rotary power printing (1840s), the typewriter (1860s), transatlantic cable (1866), the telephone (1876), radio (1906), and television (1923).

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Chapter 14 Outline – Mooney-2: (Spring 2024) SOC 268 (1XYW) – Social Problems 6/14

b. The concept of an “information society” dates back to the 1950s, when an economist identified a work sector he called the “production and distribution of knowledge.” i. In 1958, 31% of the labor force worked in this sector; today, more than 50% is. 2. The Internet is an international information infrastructure (a network of networks) available through universities, research institutes, government agencies, and businesses. 3. In 2014, 70% of all Americans used the Internet from some location. a. U.S. users are equally likely to be male or female but more likely to be between 18 and 34, to be college graduates, white non-Hispanic, employed and have an annual income of $150,000 or more. b. The most active Internet users are connected to broadband—services that provide highspeed (DSL and cable) access rather than dial-up service—and are high-income young and more educated. 4. The Internet has evolved to what is now called Web 2.0—a platform for millions of users to express themselves online in the common areas of cyberspace. 5. E-commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services over the Internet. a. Online retail sales increased by 47% in 2011 despite slowdowns in the economy. b. Most online sales are bargain hunters and convenience shoppers. 6. The Internet is also used in health and medicine. a. The Internet is the third most likely source of health information, preceded by professionals, friends or family. b. Online medical records can help improve medical care by providing decades of patient background information to doctors easily and quickly. c. Technology can help mediate increasing health care costs. 7. The Internet is the foundation of the information society, providing millions of surfers with instant answers to questions. 8. Over half of all Americans play video games, although less than a quarter play video games online. 9. Technology is also changing the world of politics, as approximately 73% of U.S. adult Internet users used the Internet to gain political information for the 2010 midterm election. 10. Social network sites and blogs comprise a sector of the Internet called membership

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Chapter 14 Outline – Mooney-2: (Spring 2024) SOC 268 (1XYW) – Social Problems 7/14

communities, which are Internet sites where participation requires membership and members regularly communicate with one another for personal and/or professional reasons. E. Science and Biotechnology 1. Genetics: Molecular biology has led to a greater understanding of the genetic material found in all cells—DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)—and with it the ability for genetic screening. a. Researchers are trying to complete genetic maps that will link DNA to particular traits. b. The Human Genome Project, a 13-year effort to map human DNA, is now complete and the conclusion of the project is transforming medicine. i. The ultimate goal is to use this information to develop new ways to treat, cure, or even prevent the thousands of diseases that afflict humankind. ii. The hope is to develop gene therapy: that if a defective or missing gene is identified, it may be possible to get a healthy duplicate and transplant it to the affected cell. 2. Food and biotechnology a. Genetic engineering: the ability to manipulate and alter the genes of an organism in such a way that the natural outcome is altered. b. Genetically modified (GM) food involves this process of DNA recombination–scientists transferring genes from one plant into the genetic code of another plant. i. An estimated 80% of processed foods in U.S. markets contain some form of GM ingredient, most often corn or soy, followed by canola and cotton (in cottonseed oil). ii. A nation survey found that 1/3 U.S. adults felt GMO food was unsafe to eat; 93% believed the government should require labels that said GMO ingredients were in the products. c. Biotechnology companies and other supporters of GM foods, commonly cite the alleviation of hunger and malnutrition as a main benefit, claiming that this technology can enable farmers to produce crops with higher yields. d. Critics of GM foods argue that the world already produces enough food for all people to have a healthy diet. e. Biotechnology companies claim that GM foods approved by the Food and Drug Administration are safe for human consumption, and they even cite potential health benefits such as the use of genetic modification to remove allergens that naturally occur

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Chapter 14 Outline – Mooney-2: (Spring 2024) SOC 268 (1XYW) – Social Problems 8/14

in foods such as nuts, making these foods safer to eat for individuals who have allergies to these foods. i. Critics claim that research on the effects of GM crops and foods on human health is inadequate, especially concerning long-term effects. ii. Human health concerns include possible toxicity, carcinogenicity, food intolerance, antibiotic resistance buildup, decreased nutritional value, and food allergens in GM foods. f. Biotechnology skeptics are also concerned about the environmental effects of GM crops. g. Another health and environmental risk is the spread of traits from GM plants to non-GM plants, the effects of which are unknown. h. GM seed contamination is of particular concern with regard to seed sterility technology. i. Biotechnology critics also raise concerns about insufficient safeguards and regulatory mechanisms. j. In 2000, worldwide concern about the safety of GM crops resulted in 130 nations signing the landmark Biosafety Protocol, which requires producers of a GM food to demonstrate that it is safe before it is widely used. 3. Reproductive technologies a. The evolution of “reproductive science” has been furthered by scientific developments in biology, medicine, and agriculture. b. In vitro fertilization (IVF): an egg and a sperm are united in an artificial setting (laboratory dish or test tube) i. Criticisms of IVF are often based on traditional definitions of the family and the legal complications created when a child can have as many as five potential parent ties— egg donor, sperm donor, surrogate mother, and the two people who raise the child, which lead to disputes over who the “real” parents are. c. Abortion: the removal of an embryo or fetus from a woman’s uterus before it can survive on its own. i. Since U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in Roe v. Wade in 1973, abortion has been legal in the United States. ii. Recent court decisions have limited the scope of the Roe v. Wade decision, and

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Chapter 14 Outline – Mooney-2: (Spring 2024) SOC 268 (1XYW) – Social Problems 9/14

additional challenges occur at the state level. iii. Many of the state restrictions on abortion are a result of the pro-life movement’s success in redefining the abortion issue as one concerning fetal rights rather than women’s rights. iv. Most recent debates concern intact dilation and extraction (D&E) abortions, which often take place in the second trimester of pregnancy (referred to by opponents as partial birth abortions). v. Women who have abortions are disproportionately poor, unmarried minorities who say that they intend to have children in the future. vi. Advocates of pro-choice hold that freedom of choice is a central human value, that procreation choices must be free of government interference, and that because the woman must bear the burden of moral choices, she should have the right to make such decisions. vii. Pro-lifers hold that the unborn fetus has a right to live and be protected, that abortion is immoral, and that alternative means of resolving an unwanted pregnancy should be found. d. Cloning, therapeutic cloning, and stem cells i. In 1996, scientist Ian Wilmut of Scotland successfully cloned an adult sheep named Dolly, and since then cattle, goats, mice, pigs, cats, rabbits, and horses have also been cloned. ii. This technological breakthrough has caused worldwide concern about the possibility of human cloning, leading the United Nations to adopt a declaration that calls for governments to ban all forms of cloning that are at odds with human dignity and the preservation of human life. iii. Those in favor of human cloning argue that it may potentially allow everyone to have their own reserve of therapeutic cells that would increase their chance of being cured of various diseases, such as cancer, degenerative disorders and viral or inflammatory diseases, and that human cloning could provide an alternative reproductive route for couples who are infertile and for those in which one partner is at risk for transmitting a genetic disease.

4/6/24, 11:56 AM Chapter 14 Outline – Mooney-2: (Spring 2024) SOC 268 (1XYW) – Social Problems

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