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Course Project: Annotated Bibliography Assignment Instructions


Course Project: Annotated Bibliography Sources 9 – 15 Assignment

Use the Topic that has already been started: 

The Impact of Technology on Academic Achievement

EDUC 701

Course Project: Annotated Bibliography Assignment Instructions


You will complete two annotated bibliography assignments during the course that will serve as the research foundation of your final paper:

This one is getting completed as 1-8 is already complete:

1. Course Project: Annotated Bibliography Sources 9 – 15 Assignment


Each annotated bibliography must follow the current APA format and consist of at least the number of scholarly sources required. Each annotated bibliography must have a title page with a running head and page numbers. The professional version of the current APA title page must be used for this assignment. No abstract is required.

Of the scholarly resources you provide for each assignment, at least five must be current and published in the last five years. These must be empirical, peer-reviewed journal articles and professional books. All sources must be directly related to your research topic.

Place your topic statement at the top of the annotated bibliography. Write the full citation for the reference, followed by the annotation. The text in the annotations must be indented so that the author’s last name is the only text that is flush left due to the hanging indent required in current APA format.

Each annotation should include a summary of the main points in the reference and how the information will be beneficial and contribute to the final paper you will be writing in Module 5: Week 5 (final draft) and Module 7: Week 7 (final paper). In the resource’s summary, focus on the purpose of the research study/reference and the findings/conclusions. You do not need to include the details of the research study, such as the number of participants or the research method used. The annotations are designed to help you and your instructor better understand how your sources connect to your research topic.


· The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the main points of the reference and how it will be beneficial in your final draft/final paper.

· Write the full reference citation followed by the summary of the reference. No reference list is to be written at the end of the paper.

· Each annotation should be 150 – 200 words. Each line in the annotation needs to be indented so that the author’s last name is the only text that is flush left.

· Include a summary of the main points of the reference. Explain how this information is useful to your problem/topic.

· Focus on the purpose of the research study and the findings. You do not need to include the details of the research methods used in the studies (number of participants, research method used).

Note: Do not cut and paste from the references, as this constitutes plagiarism. Most of the time, this occurs as an innocent oversight on the part of the candidate. Regardless of the reason, in the event of plagiarism, you will receive 0 points for the entire assignment per Liberty University’s policy on academic dishonesty.

Before you submit your annotated bibliographies, read through the Course Project: Annotated Bibliography Checklist to ensure your assignment meets all criteria.

Format the paper in current APA format and see the grading rubric for specific grading criteria. Help with current APA formatting guidelines can be found via the link to Writing Style Guides (see the link the course’s left-hand navigation menu) and/or the Education Research Guide: EDUC 701 link provided with this assignment.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.


As you read the references, you will start to see different themes or subtopics emerge. An effective way of documenting information for these different themes and subtopics is to use a note-taking method. This will assist you in synthesizing or combing the information from the different references when you write the final draft.

A research paper is not a summary of the main points of each source written in separate paragraphs. When information is synthesized, the reference information from all of the different scholarly references is combined. You put together the ideas and findings in order to put your voice (the writer’s voice) to the overall points being explained. A practical method of keeping track of and documenting the information used in each section of the paper is a note-taking method.

There are many note-taking methods, and you should choose the method that works best for you. Note-taking is not required as part of the annotated bibliography assignments, but it will be extremely helpful to have a way to keep track of the information in the references that you will use in the different sections of your paper. Below are some suggestions for note-taking methods you might want to choose. You can look up each of these methods and read about them to find the method you are comfortable with and that works best for you.

Examples of Methods of Note Taking that Might be Used:

· Two Column Notes

· Synthesis Matrix/Table

· Electronic Note Cards

· Electronic Note-Taking Apps (Evernote, Microsoft One Note, etc.)

As you gather your notes from each reference, organizing the notes according to the themes (sub-topics) will be beneficial. This can be done using a synthesis matrix. The synthesis matrix is a chart allowing a researcher to sort and categorize the arguments presented on an issue. Taking notes and then sorting and categorizing the notes in the synthesis matrix will help synthesize (or combine) the reference information in the final draft/final paper. See the example matrix below:

Synthesis table

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Page 2 of 2



Criteria Ratings Points

Content 25 to >22 pts


The sources are clearly related to the topic. All annotations include the important points from the references and include an explanation of how the information is useful to the future final paper.

22 to >20 pts


The topic is covered by the sources, but the relationship to the project is somewhat unclear. 1 annotation does not include the important points from the references and may or may not include an explanation of how the information is useful to the future final paper

20 to >0 pts


The topic is not covered by the sources, and/or the sources are unclear in their relationship to the topic. 2-5 do not include the important points from the references and/or an explanation of how the information is useful to the future final paper

0 pts

Not Present

25 pts

Timeframe 12 to >10 pts


5 journal articles are current and have been published within the last 5 years.

10 to >9 pts


4 journal articles are current and have been published within the past 5 years.

9 to >0 pts


0-3 journal article is current and has been published within the past 5 years.

0 pts

Not Present

12 pts

References 15 to >13 pts


The references are all scholarly and are peer-reviewed journal articles, and/or professional books, and they are all written at the appropriate scholarship level for this paper’s purpose.

13 to >12 pts


References are included but 1-2 are not from peer-reviewed journal articles, and/or professional books.

12 to >0 pts


References are included but 3-5 are not from peer-reviewed journal articles, and/or professional books.

0 pts

Not Present

15 pts

Course Project: Annotated Bibliography Grading Rubric | EDUC701_D04_202420

Criteria Ratings Points

Mechanics 23 to >20 pts


The required number of sources are formatted in current APA style. There are no writing errors. All annotations meet the minimum 150 word count.

20 to >18 pts


The required number of resources is not met because one source is missing. Sources are formatted in current APA style but there are 1-3 writing errors. Most annotations meet the minimum 150 word count.

18 to >0 pts


The required number of resources is not met because two sources are missing. Sources are formatted in current APA style but there are four or more writing errors. Several annotations do not meet the minimum 150 word count.

0 pts

Not Present

Structure is not present.

23 pts

Total Points: 75

Course Project: Annotated Bibliography Grading Rubric | EDUC701_D04_202420




Comment by [email protected]: Every letter in each word is capitalized in the running head.

Course Project: Annotated Bibliography Sources 1-8 Comment by [email protected]: This will be 9 – 16 for the second annotated bibliography.

Student’s Name

School of Education, Liberty University

Author Note

Student’s Name

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this assignment should be addressed to Student’s Name

Email: student’s email address

Topic: The Impact of Technology on Higher Education Rural Student Success During the Coronavirus Pandemic Comment by [email protected]: Write your topic at the top of this page.

Baruth, O., Gabbay, H., Cohen, A., Bronshtein, A., & Ezra, O. (2021). Distance learning perceptions during the coronavirus outbreak: Freshmen versus more advanced students. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 37(6), 1666-1681. Comment by [email protected]: Each full citation must have a hanging indent. This means that the first line is not indented and all other lines in the citation are indented. Comment by [email protected]:  Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks (i.e., beginning with “http:” or “https:”). Because a hyperlink leads readers directly to the content, it is unnecessary to include the words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a DOI or URL.

The author’s research focuses on obtaining the sincere opinions of college freshmen regarding their experiences with distance learning during the coronavirus pandemic. Many college freshmen experienced learning over the internet for the first time because of the shift to emergency remote teaching and their attitudes about the challenge proved different than those of upperclassmen. Fall 2020 enrollees at Tel Aviv University answered a questionnaire regarding their thoughts on the course, instructor, learning environment, institution, and their own experience as a student. While there were benefits such as flexibility with time and pace of learning, students admitted that difficulties with technology as well as the frustration caused by their instructors not being knowledgeable enough about the technology, were negative aspects of online learning. Freshman students were more likely to expect personal assistance with the technology from their instructors than advanced students who expected such help. This article will be beneficial to my paper because the narrative of how technological issues factored into these students’ distance learning experience during the pandemic and how much more likely these issues are for students lacking technology illustrate the contribution this study can make to the topic of technology and its importance in student success. Comment by [email protected]: All of the text in each annotation should be indented. Only the first author's last name in the full citation will not be indented because APA requires a hanging indent.

Durak, G., & Cankaya, S. (2020). Undergraduate students’ views about emergency distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Open Education and eLearning Studies, 5(1), 122-147.

This study looked at university students who held concerns about their studies being taken online as the pandemic began, but these fears were alleviated in those who completed courses with a live/synchronous component and those that used an integrated technological platform. Students whose schools did not offer an all-in-one platform where lessons, assignments, and communication could be conducted using that same technology continued to express concern. The team of researchers in this study considered four different universities and the ways they navigated the pandemic with distance learning. Those universities that provided their students with multiple means of accessing learning and those that provided near-immediate feedback produced students who were more satisfied with the experience overall. Nearly all students, however, agreed that a proper infrastructure of technology needed to be in place to accomplish successful distance learning. In rural areas of typically poor infrastructure, student success could be impeded. Because this article highlights that students desire synchronous sessions and that when technology in accessing such sessions is obstructed, so is student learning, it will be helpful to my topic.

Fridley, D., & Rogers-Atkinson, D. (2015). Implementing a one-to-one technology initiative in higher education. Administrative Issues Journal: Connecting Education, Practice, and Research, 5(2), 38-50.

Well before the coronavirus pandemic began, distance education was beginning to grow in usefulness and popularity. The College of Education Faculty at Southeast Missouri State University recognized this and implemented a plan to incorporate educational technologies in the classroom. Not only were initiatives for the classroom applied but due to a recent push by secondary school districts in the immediate area of the university to provide each of their students with a personal electronic device (PED), the College of Education pursued affording each of their students in the Teacher Education Program with an iPad that following year. Issues experienced with the program involved Wi-Fi capacity, hardware and software in the classrooms, distribution and return of electronic devices, consequences for those that were lost or stolen, as well as concerns about sustainability. A program of issuing hundreds of electronic devices to students to use while in school and at home has some of its limitations in the capacity of the school Wi-Fi to handle the simultaneous traffic, and the potential inability of some students to use the device at home while working on school assignments if they don’t have access to a reliable internet connection. This article benefits my paper’s topic by describing how students living in rural areas lacking access to high-speed broadband connections might see no benefit from such a program unless internet service becomes more extensive.

Gonzales, A.L., McCrory Calarco, J., & Lynch, T. (2020). Technology problems and student achievement gaps: A validation and extension of the technology maintenance construct. Communication Research, 47(5), 750-770.

Among college students in the United States, ownership of electronic devices of some sort is universal, according to the authors. They found that it wasn’t the owning of devices that was problematic but maintaining their technology. Technology maintenance, a construct introduced by these researchers, refers to the effort it takes for a person’s device to have a reliable connection via home or public access. Researchers looked not only at what devices students owned, but how well they worked, how reliable their connections were, and how students were able financially able to maintain connectivity. Students who were of high socioeconomic status were unlikely to be responsible for the cost of the devices and/or access themselves, unlike low socioeconomic status students. This team concluded their research by discussing the disparities that exist between those who maintain high connectivity and the benefits they enjoy of lower unemployment and improved healthcare and those who have trouble with technological maintenance. Because rural areas are more likely to experience higher unemployment and less access to healthcare than urban dwellers, there is a correlation between the topic and this article.

Kaur, H., Singh, A., Mahajan, S., Lal, M., Singh, G., & Kaur, P. (2021). Assessment of barriers and motivators to online learning among medical undergraduates of Punjab. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 10, 123.

While much of the focus of distance learning was on secondary instruction during the coronavirus pandemic, post-secondary schooling felt the impact of a sudden switch as well. One field that has been experiencing high innovation in technology is the medical field, and this has manifested itself not only in the hospital and exam room but also in the medical student’s classroom. This study sought to describe the obstacles students in medical school in Punjab face, including lack of technology experience, motivation issues, assistance with both the material and the technology, and technology failures. The authors reported that at least 90% of students in this study faced at least one difficulty with distance learning. Because some of these self-reported difficulties related to the use of technology, the study contributes to the overall topic of the paper as far as technological matters are concerned, which are only exacerbated in areas with poor infrastructure or lack of proper equipment.

Leichty, R. (2021). Online learning for rural students. State Education Standard, 21(1), 12-17.

Leichty’s overall treatise concerns the lack of broadband access for rural students both at the institutional level and the in-home usage arena. He suggests that the problems with connectivity at schools are not new and have been highlighted by school leaders for years and that it was only the pandemic that spurred people to action. He also reviews the minimum federally required institutional broadband capacities and optimal speeds. Home broadband capabilities are more difficult to determine but important because much of the technology used by educators today requires a higher download speed. The article gives statistics on those students living in rural areas that have access to the internet and if that access is high-speed, low-speed, or dial-up. Because the companies that are responsible for producing the broadband connections and coverage are non-government, there are no requirements that a company must provide coverage to any area. Coverage, therefore, is based on return on investment, and, as Leichty points out if the return isn’t high enough, the company has no interest or investment in providing it. This article benefits this paper because although Leichty’s article focuses on secondary education students, the concepts and issues he describes may affect any student living in a rural area.

Reisdorf, B.C., Triwibowo, W., & Yankelevich, A. (2020). Laptop or bust: How lack of technology affects student achievement. American Behavioral Scientist, 64(7), 927-949.

This reference focuses on the socio-economic status of students at a university and how this creates a deficit in their access to technology and hence the opportunity to be successful in class. The authors do attempt to control for socioeconomic status by advising that the university of their study does offer financial aid to students for use in obtaining a laptop. Students who choose not to utilize financial aid loans for these devices, though, and therefore lack the devices, may be at a disadvantage for school success. A unique perspective is also considered in that students lacking laptops are not only hindered in their ability to keep up with class or work outside of school but may also lack technological literacy, lagging their fellow students who can have more time working with the technology. This article relates to the topic of a lack of technology for rural students in that rural areas tend to have a lower socioeconomic status than urban areas.

Stevanovic, A., Bozic, R. & Radovic, S. (2021). Higher education students’ experiences and opinions about distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 37(6), 1682-1693.

This was yet another study that focused on student perceptions of their education during the coronavirus pandemic. While this study focused primarily on student motivation and performance, two factors in the lack of motivation involved digital illiteracy and technological challenges. As one student mentioned in the study, technological problems such as a poor network connection and issues with sound and video quality contributed to a poor classroom experience and led to complications in communicating with fellow students and the instructor. One of the specific technological elements the students mentioned was the trial of attempting more difficult subjects, such as mathematics in a distance learning format. Subjects that require students to do more across technology than simply read and take exams might have the additional stress of learning to utilize the technology. This article will be relevant to the topic of technology and rural areas because if poor quality technology contributes to a decreased motivation to perform well in class, this can likely be extrapolated to students experiencing poor technology at home where the situation is the same.




Course Project: Annotated Bibliography Sources 1 – 8



Author Note

James W. Bland

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to James W. Bland.

Email: [email protected]

Topic: The Impact of Technology on Academic Achievement

Hanham, J., Lee, C. B., & Teo, T. (2021). The influence of technology acceptance, academic self-efficacy, and gender on academic achievement through online tutoring. Computers & Education, 172, 104252.

Technology acceptability, academic self-efficacy, and gender affected online tutoring academic achievement, according to Hanham et al. (2021). Technology Acceptance and Social Cognitive Theory factors were used to create and evaluate a model. The study involved 365 Sydney undergraduates doing an online survey. Data analysis showed configural, metric, and scalar invariance using CFA, SEM, and MGA. Females scored better on enabling circumstances. However, gender-specific regression routes existed. Encouraging situations increased technology's perceived utility and academic self-efficacy. The relationship between perceived utility and ease of use was surprising. Academic achievement and academic self-efficacy are correlated. These results illuminate elements of the online learning environment that affect academic achievement, which is essential for online tutoring service providers. Understanding technological acceptability and academic self-efficacy may help create and execute successful online tutoring programs, improving student results. Additionally, gender inequalities show the need to incorporate various student groups in educational interventions. This research sheds light on online tutoring and emphasizes the importance of technology acceptance and academic self-efficacy for digital learning success. This article benefits my paper by examining how technological adoption, academic self-efficacy, and gender affect academic achievement in online tutoring.

Hwang, G.-J., Wang, S.-Y., & Lai, C.-L. (2021). Effects of a social regulation-based online learning framework on students’ learning achievements and behaviors in mathematics. Computers & Education, 160, 104031.

Hwang et al. (2021) examined how a social regulation-based online learning framework affects math students' learning and behavior. This study examined social regulation's efficacy in arithmetic learning and created a peer-based online learning system to assist students succeed. Self-regulated learning control and social regulation-based experimental groups were contrasted in this experiment. Social control motivated math students. Students utilizing this method used extra material and changed notes more online than the control group. The study shows that social regulation-based online learning frameworks improve math students' learning and conduct. This information is helpful for educators and policymakers who want to enhance student engagement and math performance via new online learning practices. Understanding how social regulation affects learning achievements and behaviors allows educators to create collaborative learning environments and encourage meaningful student interactions, improving online mathematics education. The research also emphasizes the relevance of socio-cognitive aspects in online learning frameworks and the possibility of peer engagement and cooperation to enhance student learning. This study improves online learning techniques and helps instructors maximize mathematics teaching. This article benefits my paper since it provides information on how a social regulation-based online learning framework affects students' math learning and ways to improve online learning.

Mandasari, B. (2020). The impact of online learning on students’ academic performance in a business correspondence course. EDUTEC: Journal of Education and Technology, 4(1), 98–110.

Mandasari (2020) examined how online learning affected Business Correspondence students' academic performance during the COVID-19 epidemic. In response to the Indonesian government's push for online education, the research examined how online learning affects motivation, achievement, and engagement. Data from 40 participants showed that online learning improved academic performance, motivation, accomplishment, and engagement. The research stressed the importance of online learning during the pandemic and its flexibility, accessibility, and learning autonomy. However, budgetary concerns and insufficient internet connectivity hindered online learning. This study sheds light on the pros and cons of online learning during a pandemic, helping educators and policymakers improve online learning environments. Understanding students' academic performance and obstacles in online courses might help improve online education quality and accessibility. This research adds to the literature on online learning efficacy and emphasizes the need t

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