lease follow the formatting guidance listed in the template:

– Introduce the data you are working with

– Introduce the test you will be doing

– Insert the first test images scaled to fit the document

– Discuss the findings and introduce the next test

– Insert second test results scaled to fit the document

– Discuss the findings and any conclusions.

Times new roman font and double spacing should be used. Dont put labels like task 1, task 2. DO NOT just post all your images and put a paragraph at the bottom. Dont provide multiple separate uploads.

There is a rubric for this assignment and I allow you to resubmit. Please view the rubric carefully.

use first 3 documents attached

—————-

part 2

Compose the entire project: Combine Project Part 1 to Part 4 together and

1. Add an introduction paragraph

2. Add an overall conclusion paragraph

3. Discuss how we can reduce the racial equity gap, or what factors may contribute to it.

What could you do personally to help reduce the gap

Use last 4 documents for this

Data was collected by the American Consumer Survey as a part of the Census in the year 2013. The data was discussed in this project is the income of White Women, Black Women and All Males…. (continue with your introduction of the topic- DO NOT COPY MINE). The first(later you will use next) part of this study will look at (Fill in with the test you will be doing). The results of that test can be seen here.

Input the image of the results. Please adjust it to be of appropriate size to be seen and for one graph to not take up an entire page. You can make the images smaller to fit nicely in the paper. *If you have multiple images, shrink them to all fit in a single row.

Discuss your findings: We can see from the graph/table etc… Whatever you have to discuss here from the first test you should. The more specific with the values and data the better.

The next part of this study will look at the (fill in the test). You can then explain why you may run this test, or what kind of things it will show…. The results of that test can be seen here:

Input the image of the test

Make sure it is appropriate size

If you make them individual make them small enough to fit in a line for comparison.

Discuss the findings: Again in paragraph form. Complete sentences, proper grammar, professional sounding research paper.

## image1.png

,

## Sheet1

State | White Women | Black Women | Men |

Alabama | 35212 | 28410 | 43400 |

Alaska | 46000 | 56000 | |

Arizona | 40586 | 35513 | 44000 |

Arkansas | 32000 | 28895 | 40000 |

California | 51782 | 43630 | 50000 |

Colorado | 43000 | 36527 | 50000 |

Connecticut | 50747 | 39355 | 60000 |

Delaware | 43497 | 37440 | 49900 |

District of Columbia | 70424 | 48703 | 69000 |

Florida | 38000 | 30000 | 40000 |

Georgia | 39400 | 32000 | 42500 |

Hawaii | 45659 | 48000 | |

Idaho | 32105 | 40000 | |

Illinios | 41601 | 36527 | 50000 |

Indiana | 34694 | 32000 | 45000 |

Iowa | 35513 | 28600 | 45000 |

Kansas | 36000 | 31069 | 45000 |

Kentucky | 33483 | 28998 | 42800 |

Louisiana | 36000 | 25891 | 48000 |

Maine | 36000 | 43000 | |

Maryland | 51782 | 46000 | 57000 |

Massachusetts | 50000 | 39355 | 60000 |

Michigan | 38000 | 34176 | 48000 |

Minnesota | 41426 | 32976 | 50000 |

Mississippi | 33141 | 25000 | 40000 |

Missouri | 35000 | 31069 | 43000 |

Montana | 32105 | 42000 | |

Nebraska | 35000 | 27500 | 45000 |

Nevada | 41426 | 33762 | 42300 |

New Hampshire | 41426 | 52000 | |

New Jersey | 51782 | 42000 | 60000 |

New Mexico | 42250 | 42300 | |

New York | 48000 | 40000 | 50000 |

North Carolina | 37283 | 30034 | 42000 |

North Dakota | 34600 | 46200 | |

Ohio | 36527 | 31454 | 46900 |

Oklahoma | 33141 | 30000 | 40000 |

Oregon | 39355 | 35513 | 46000 |

Pennsylvania | 39000 | 35513 | 50000 |

Rhode Island | 44000 | 32164 | 52000 |

South Carolina | 36000 | 26600 | 40000 |

South Dakota | 31069 | 39000 | |

Tennessee | 35000 | 30439 | 40000 |

Texas | 42000 | 34498 | 45000 |

Utah | 35513 | 50000 | |

Vermont | 39355 | 45000 | |

Virginia | 44015 | 35212 | 52000 |

Washington | 43186 | 36527 | 53000 |

West Virginia | 30439 | 27395 | 45000 |

Wisconsin | 37387 | 30439 | 46000 |

Wyoming | 35513 | 53000 |

,

## Statcrunch Chapter 11

This project requires you to look at income data from 51 different areas (50 states and D.C.). This data has a column for each of the following: White Women, Black Women, All Men. This is actual data comprised from the Census 2013 American Consumer Surveys. The goal is to work with real data, run statistics and draw conclusion on the difference or similarities in income based on race. There are 5 parts to this project that you will work on during 5 different weeks of the course. You will be writing conclusions, differences and similarities between the data sets after each part so in the end you have a complete report that will be submitted. In the end your findings should discuss the discrepancies in income based on race. Each week I will grade your submission and provide feedback on parts you should redo before completing the final project at the end of the semester.

## Part 5

Task 1: Open the Income data set in Statcrunch.

Task 2: Construct a 95% confidence interval for the average difference in the means between White Women and Black Women’s income.

Task 3: Construct a 95% confidence interval for the average difference in the means between White Woman’s income and the Male income.

Task 4: Write your conclusion from the hypothesis test, being sure to include the hypotheses, P-value, and if we reject or do not reject the null. List the confidence interval and be sure to write an interpretation sentence.

***Step by Step directions for Statrcrunch are on the following Pages

***Please follow formatting guidance provided in the case study template

Performing a paired t test:

Make sure you have opened the Income data set. Click Stats T-Stats Paired. For sample 1 select White Women. Sample 2 will be Black Women. The hypothesis test we wish to perform will be a greater than test. Click Compute.

Make sure you highlight, copy and paste this data into your write up.

Constructing a Paired Mean Confidence Interval:

Click Stats T-Stats Paired. For sample 1 select White. Sample 2 will be Male. This time select confidence interval. There is no need to change the confidence level as we want a 95% confidence level. Click Compute. Make sure you highlight, copy and paste this data into your write up.

Now type your findings for the week. Write your conclusion from the hypothesis test, being sure to include the hypotheses, P-value, and if we reject or do not reject the null. Did it make a difference if you use alpha of .01 versus alpha of .10? List the confidence interval and be sure to write an interpretation sentence. Please review how we write out conclusions. There is/is not sufficient evidence… We are ___% confident the mean difference … Why are the values in this confidence interval negative?

Please refer to the formatting guidelines on the case study template

## image1.png

## image2.png

,

One sample T hypothesis test: μ : Mean of variable H0 : μ = 59842 HA : μ > 59842

Hypothesis test results: Variable Sample Mean Std. Err. DF T-Stat P-value

White 64430.885 2097.8149 51 2.1874592 0.0167

One sample T hypothesis test: μ : Mean of variable H0 : μ = 59842 HA : μ < 59842

Hypothesis test results: Variable Sample Mean Std. Err. DF T-Stat P-value

Black/African American 40358.596 1286.4605 51 -15.144968 <0.000

,

Colu mn

n Mea

n Varia nce

Std. dev.

Std. err.

Medi an

Rang e

Min Max Q1 Q3

Whit e

52 6443 0.885

2.288 4303 e8

1512 7.558

2097. 8149

6095 9.5

1109 02

2113 8

1320 40

5636 5.5

7131 8

Black / Africa n Amer ican

52 4035 8.596

8605 8996

9276. 7988

1286. 4605

3857 2.5

5060 4

1949 6

7010 0

3364 5.5

4574 4

Over all Avera ge

52 5984 2.692

1.354 2761 e8

1163 7.337

1613. 8082

5884 8

6243 8

2016 6

8260 4

5282 4

6839 2.5

The provided data presents summary statistics for three groups: White, black, and the overall.

Based on the mean values, White people have an average income of $64,430.885, which is the highest, then the overall mean of $59,842.692, and the Black group has the lowest income at $40,358.596. The same trend is observed in the median income, where White individuals have the highest median at $60,959.5, followed by the overall median of $58,848, and Black individuals with a median of $38,572.5.

The spread of data, as indicated by the range, is widest for White individuals (range: The highest range was women ($21,138-$132,040), followed by the overall range ($20,166-$82,604), and then Black individuals (range: $ 19,496-$70,100). This implies greater income inequality amongst Whites.

Looking at boxplots would probably give a better idea of the income distribution within each group. Both minimum and maximum values and the interquartile range (Q3-Q1) provide information about spread and central tendency. Outliers can also be detected.

Overall, the data points to large income conferences between Whites and Blacks. White individuals usually have higher mean and median incomes and a more comprehensive income range. Analyzing boxplots would allow a visual representation of these differences, giving a more intricate perception of the income distribution within each group.

,

Column n Mean Varianc

e Std. dev.

Std. err.

Medi an

Rang e

Mi n

Ma x

Q1 Q3

Overall Average 5 2

59842 .692

1.35427 61e8

11637. 337

1613.8 082

58848 6243 8

20 16 6

826 04

528 24

683 92.5

White 5 2

64430 .885

2.28843 03e8

15127. 558

2097.8 149

60959 .5

1109 02

21 13 8

132 040

563 65.5

713 18

Black/African American

5 2

40358 .596

860589 96

9276.7 988

1286.4 605

38572 .5

5060 4

19 49 6

701 00

336 45.5

457 44

White is the race that has a higher income (M=64430.89, SD=15127.56)

than the Black/African American. Black/African has ana average income of

40358.596 with a standard deviation of 9276.80. The overall average income

of the two races is 59842.69 with a standard deviation of 11637.34. The

histogram shows that the income of the black/African American is skewed to

the right.

X<70,000

X<75000

X<47,500

,

One sample T confidence interval: μ : Mean of variable

90% confidence interval results:

Variable Sample Mean Std. Err. DF L. Limit U. Limit

Overall Average 59842.692 1613.8082 51 57139.104 62546.281

White 64430.885 2097.8149 51 60916.447 67945.322

Black/African American

40358.596 1286.4605 51 38203.408 42513.784

One sample T confidence interval: μ : Mean of variable

98% confidence interval results:

Variable Sample Mean Std. Err. DF L. Limit U. Limit

Overall Average 59842.692 1613.8082 51 55966.781 63718.604

Black/African American

40358.596 1286.4605 51 37268.881 43448.311

White 64430.885 2097.8149 51 59392.526 69469.243

Interpretation Sentences:

1. We are 90% confident that the average income for overall individuals is

between $57,139.104 and $62,546.281.

2. We are 90% confident that the average income for Black/African American

individuals is between $60,916.447 and $67,945.322.

3. We are 90% confident that the average income for white individuals is

between $38,203.408 and $42,513.784.

4. We are 98% confident that the average income for overall individuals is

between $55,966.781 and $63,718.604.

5. We are 98% confident that the average income for Black/African American

individuals lies between $37,268.881 and $43,448.311.

6. We are 98% confident that the average income for White individuals lies

between $59,392.526 and $69,469.243.

Discussion on Confidence Levels:

As the confidence level increases, strides from 90% to 98%, variability of confidence

intervals also grows. Such an increase in the CI length demonstrates that the collected data

provide a higher level of accuracy in estimating the population parameter. This indicates

that, as such confidence levels increase, the flux of possible population means gets larger

and the area of the range exceeds other values.